In this article, I am going to CCNA certification percentage the 12 maximum vital topics in the Online CCNA certification path. These are also crucial from an interview point of view.Book a LIVE Session NOW!
1. Address Resolution Protocol (ARP):
ARP is a layer of two protocols. It’s complete form Address Resolution Protocol itself defines its characteristic. A PC sends an ARP request to know the MAC cope with of a device. ARP request is broadcast. In reaction to an ARP request, PC generates an ARP respond that is unicast in nature.
2. Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP):
The DHCP server assigns an IP deal with mechanically to the host machine. In a small network, we will configure an IP address manually, but in a bigger network, we are able to’t assign IP addresses for my part to every machine.
So, we configure the DHCP server so that each one hosts mechanically get hold of an IP cope with.
To get an IP address, there are 4 DHCP messages that are exchanged among a DHCP server and a number.
Discover: First host sends a find out message to find out the DHCP server.
Offer: In reaction to the invention message, DHCP server sends an IP cope with.
Request: After getting the offer message, the host sends a request message to the DHCP server, I (host) am OK with this IP deal with, please ship complete configuration information.
Acknowledge: In the renowned message, DHCP server sends an IP cope with with all crucial configuration.
All 4 messages are broadcast. This procedure of having an IP cope with is also referred to as the DORA system.
Three. Spanning Tree Protocol (STP):
Spanning tree protocol is used to reduce layer 2 loops. In wellknown, to make certain community availability, some extra links are added. These extra links also are referred to as redundant hyperlinks. They act as backup links, it means, if any active link fails, then traffic shifts to those backup links.
We saw, the reason of adding those links is ideal, but these links have some cons also, those hyperlinks additionally create loops at layer 2, and due to those loops, broadcast typhoon and MAC instability issues rise up.
Now allow’s see how STP reduces layer 2 loops. By default, STP is going for walks in all workable switches. By placing greater hyperlinks in block mode, STP creates a unmarried direction among every point.
Spanning Tree Protocol (STP)
four. Secure Shell (SSH) and Telnet:
SSH and Telnet both are used to remotely access the tool. SSH is preferred over Telnet, as Telnet is less comfortable and sends records and password in undeniable textual content, so there’s a opportunity every person can view the passwords, at the same time as SSH sends encrypted statistics, nobody can view the real statistics.
Five. Hot Standby Routing Protocol (HSRP):
HSRP is also referred to as gateway redundancy protocol. It is Cisco proprietary protocol. HSRP is used for load balancing the visitors. In widespread, to ensure 24/7 community connectivity, organization networks have 2 internet connections from 2 unique carriers so that if one goes down visitors will shift to some other and that is carried out with the help of HSRP. In HSRP, there are 2 routers, one operates in energetic mode and some other in standby mode, if because of a few technical problem lively router is going down, then visitors will shift to the standby router.
Hot Standby Routing Protocol (HSRP)
6. Open Shortest Path First (OSPF):
OSPF is the interior gateway dynamic protocol. Dynamic protocol approach it learns routes dynamically or each time a exchange occurs inside the topology it robotically updates the routing table.
It works at the shortest course first set of rules to calculate the high-quality route from to be had paths.
OSPF is a hyperlink-kingdom protocol, to put it up for sale routes to neighbours, OSPF uses Link nation commercials (LSAs). AD cost of OSPF is a hundred and ten.1
TCP and UDP protocol:
TCP stands for Transmission control protocol. UDP stands for user datagram protocol.
Both are transport layer protocols.
7. TCP Transmission Control Protocol:
TCP is a connection-orientated protocol, first a connection is mounted among the sender and the receiver after which the actual transmission begins. To establish a connection in TCP, there’s a selected technique this is known as the three-way handshake procedure.
#### three manner handshake photograph is inserted
First sender sends a syn message to the receiver.
In response to a syn message, the receiver sends a syn/ack message to the sender.
In response of syn/ack message, the sender sends ack message.
Here syn stands for synchronize and ack stands for acknowledge.
Transmission thru TCP protocol in CCNA is dependable because there may be an recounted message that conveys the popularity of packets (lost or acquired). It method if a packet is efficaciously obtained, it sends the message packet is acquired and if a packet is misplaced, then it recognizes the sender, a packet is misplaced in the halfway, please re-transmit the packet.